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LMCC Addenda page Revised
LMCC Addenda Page Revised
We have recently updated the LMCC addenda page to include the new London mint coins discovered in the Wold Newton hoard and a number of other new coins submitted by collectors. The new entries are repeated below for ease of identification.
New London mint coins discovered in the Wold Newton hoard:
4.03.001.5 IMP C MAXIMIANVS P FELIX AVG Bust B3 (7.80 g) Wold Newton hoard #45. The coin is currently uncleaned and the Yorkshire Museums Trust is hoping to acquire the hoard intact for further study. Image courtesy of and © Trustees of the British Museum.
4.03.022.5 MAXIMINVS NOBILISSIMVS CAESAR The bust is a new type for London – laureate, cuirassed right, right hand raised (possibly holding mappa?), left hand holding globe. (9.09 g) Wold Newton hoard #58. The coin is currently uncleaned and the Yorkshire Museums Trust is hoping to acquire the hoard intact for further study. Image courtesy of and © Trustees of the British Museum.
4.03.024.5 MAXIMINVS NOBILISSIMVS C Bust B2 (10.50 g) Wold Newton hoard #60. The coin is currently uncleaned and the Yorkshire Museums Trust is hoping to acquire the hoard intact for further study. Image courtesy of and © Trustees of the British Museum.
Many thanks to Vincent Drost who carried out the initial identification and report on the hoard.
7.04.016 A second example has come to light that is a double die match to the LMCC reference coin – metrics and image awaited. Private collection.
7.04.028.5 CONSTANTINVS P AVG Bust F3 (y) left – metrics and image awaited. Private collection.
8.04.009 Included but not illustrated in LMCC, as an image was not available at the time for the reference example. This image is from a second example (21 mm 3.1 g 12h). Phil Edmonds collection.
8.09.003 (2) An example of this type with the CLARITAS REIPVBLICE reverse legend variation(20 mm 3.3 g 12h). Phil Edmonds collection. This is from a different die than 8.09.002 (2) and the example mentioned in the footnote to 8.09.004. Therefore perhaps not a simple die cutting error. These were the first coins struck at London with this reverse legend so they may have been early examples where the instructions to the die cutters were unclear or wrong. A mistake corrected for later dies and issues.
The Wold Newton Hoard
The Wold Newton Hoard
The Wold Newton hoard was discovered in 2014 and is now on display at the Yorkshire Museum. In the pot were 1,857 coins all dating from the Tetrarchic period apart from one radiate. Over a quarter of the coins in the hoard, exactly 500, were struck at the London mint. These include 12 coins with the very rare LON mintmark. These are the first coins struck in London by Constantius after his defeat of Allectus and only 107 examples are known to us. The LON signature is also seen on the reverse of famous Arras medallion which symbolizes the recapture of the city by Constantius.
Soon the coins stopped carrying a mintmark and coins struck at London were unmarked and relatively common. Many of the 500 coins in the hoard struck in London are of this type. Later after the death of Constantius, Constantine reintroduced a mintmark PLN – P standing for pecunia (money in Latin) and LN for Londinium.
But the hoard also contains many rare London mint coins including three types that were previously unknown to us. We will shortly be publishing those coins here as part of the addenda to ‘The London Mint of Constantius and Constantine’ . The hoard has been catalogued at the British Museum and will be published in full in due course.
The London coins in the hoard also enable the date of its burial to be established quite precisely. Constantine was promoted from Caesar to Augustus on Christmas Day 307. The inscriptions on his coins were changed to reflect this. Only two coins in the hoard show this change, both from London. The fact that there are so few and none from mints further away suggests that the hoard was buried very soon after this change took place and before the new types could have travelled very far – so very late in 307 or early in 308.
We consider that the Wold Newton hoard is one of the most important hoards of its type and that it is essential for it to be kept together for future study and research. We would encourage people to donate to the Yorkshire Museums Trust to enable this hoard to be kept in Yorkshire. For details on how to donate please see below.
The following is an extract from the Yorkshire Museums Trust website reproduced with their permission:
The discovery of the Wold Newton Hoard is a rare opportunity to keep a very important Roman hoard in a public collection. If acquired and studied, the hoard will help to reshape our understanding of a crucial period in the history of York, Yorkshire and Europe.
The hoard can be dated quite precisely, with the latest coins in the hoard suggesting it was hidden in 307. This is shortly after the death of the emperor Constantius in York, and the rise to power of his son, Constantine the Great. The hoard provides a link to events which would reshape the empire and the history of Europe.
The Wold Newton hoard is the largest of that period found in northern Britain. It contains 1,857 copper coins which were concealed within a ceramic pot. This is a large store of wealth, roughly equivalent to a legionary’s annual salary, three year’s salary for a carpenter or six years for a farm labourer. It could buy 700 chickens, 2,000 of the finest fish or 11,000 pints of beer!
The hoard was found by metal detectorist David Blakey near the village of Wold Newton, East Yorkshire, in 2014.
He filmed its discovery and immediately reported it to the Portable Antiquities Scheme rather than emptying it out. This has allowed archaeologists the rare opportunity to excavate it in different layers to see how coins were added to the vessel.
Insect remains attached to some of the coins also offer another way of analysing the contents. All this means there is huge potential for getting a greater understanding of the period and why it was buried.
The Yorkshire Museum has four months to raise £44,200 to keep the hoard in Yorkshire and in public collections. The appeal was launched on July 25 – 1,710 years since the death of Constantius in York and his dying wish that Constantine should be his successor.
Andrew Woods, curator of numismatics at the Yorkshire Museum, said:
“This is an absolutely stunning find with a strong connection to one of the most significant periods in York’s Roman history. No hoard of this size from this period has ever been discovered in the north of England before.
“It contains coins minted in York from the time of Constantius who died in the city and then the first to feature Constantine, rising to power. This was a pivotal moment in York’s history but also the history of the western world. It was also a time of great uncertainty in the empire, as different Roman powers looked to challenge Constantine’s claim as emperor.
“We hope to now save the hoard to make sure it stays in Yorkshire for the public to enjoy but also so we can learn more about this fascinating period as well as why it was buried and to whom it might have belonged.”
To find out how you can help by making a donation please go to this page – Wold Newton Hoard
Constantius: York’s Forgotten Emperor
Constantius: York’s Forgotten Emperor
New Exhibition at the Yorkshire Museum in York
July 16 – October 9 2016
The life of the Roman emperor who reconquered Britain and briefly made York one of the centres of the Roman World will be told at the Yorkshire Museum this summer.
Constantius: York’s Forgotten Emperor, will reveal the story of Constantius Chlorus (250AD – 306AD) who made his name in Britain, defeating rebellious generals and fighting Picts north of Hadrian’s Wall.
While campaigning in Britain he was based in York (Eboracum), where he died and his son Constantine, succeeded him.
The new Spotlight exhibition will feature coins from the Beaurains Hoard on loan from the British Museum, including the famous medallions, some of the largest Roman gold coins to survive. These show the emperor raising Britannia from her knees.
The Spotlight exhibition will also feature the Wold Newton Hoard and artefacts from the Yorkshire Museum’s collections.
Andrew Woods, curator of numismatics, said:
“Constantius is York’s forgotten emperor – however his life and death had a huge effect on the Roman Empire and York’s place in it.
“During his lifetime, the emperor visited Britain several times – reconquering it from rebellious generals and fighting North of Hadrian’s wall against the Picts. He made his reputation in Britannia and also died here. The time he spent in the province brought wealth and exotic connections from distant parts of a vast empire.
“His greatest legacy was his son, Constantine the Great, who was proclaimed emperor in York following his father’s death. Constantine strengthened his family’s power, defeated his rivals and transformed the empire forever through the acceptance of Christianity. The events of 306 placed York at the heart of events which would re-shape European history for centuries to come.”
The Spotlight Exhibition
The exhibition will be shown in the Roman galleries of the Yorkshire Museum and is included in the admission price.
It will feature several of the most impressive coins from the British Museum’s Beuarains Hoard, found in France in 1922. It dates from 315AD and graffiti on one medallion suggests it belonged to Vitalianus, who was an experienced junior officer in the Roman army.
The hoard contains several coins which commemorate Constantius’ success as conqueror of Britain. One example shows the emperor lifting a kneeling Britannia to her feet. Another celebrates the victory of the army at London, with the emperor on horseback marching into the town which is marked ‘LON’.
The medallion has the legend REDDITOR LVCIS AETERNA, meaning ‘Restorer of eternal light’. The coins and medallions were issued across the empire, helping to spread the word of Constantius’ victory.
The Spotlight exhibition will also feature the Wold Newton Hoard and the marble head of Constantine, Constantius’ son who was declared Emperor in York following the death of his father.
Who was Constantius?
Constantius Chlorus rose from relative obscurity to become the Emperor of the western Roman empire. He was a soldier who had worked his way up through the ranks but his real political break came when in 289 he married Theodora, the stepdaughter of the emperor Maximian. By this time Constantius had already fathered a son called Constantine by another woman, Helena. Both Constantine and Helena went on to earn great renown in their own right.
In 293 the Roman Empire became a ‘tetrarchy’, meaning it was ruled by four different people. Constantius Chlorus was chosen by Maximian to be one of them – he became Caesar (junior emperor) of the northwest. This was a tricky assignment because much of the territory was in the hands of a break-away empire led by naval commander Carausius and his allies the Franks. That summer Constantius led a military campaign and regained control of Gaul, northern France. In 296 he did the same in Britain.
There followed nine years of relative peace which only came to an end in 305 when the Picts attacked the northern reaches of the empire in Britain. As so often in its history, York became an important strategic centre in a battle for the north of England.
Constantius was by now Augustus, the senior emperor of the west. He called for his son Constantine to join him in Gaul and together they headed to York. They enjoyed a series of victories over the Picts but then, on 25 July 306, Constantius became the second emperor to die in York.
Constantius’s first wife Helena became a saint after being credited with finding the relics of the true cross. St Helen’s Church and Square in York are named after her.
Their son became the next Roman emperor: Constantine the Great.
(Text courtesy of Yorkshire Museums Trust)
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